|Abbreviation: B35A01||Load: 30(L)
|Lecturers in charge: ||prof. dr. sc. Željko Bačić
|Lecturers: ||dr. sc. Danijel Šugar
Lectures, Design exercises
Zvonimir Nevistić MEng Geod. et G
Adopting the theoretical and practical knowledge about Global Navigation Satellite Systems and their implementation in navigation and positioning with special emphasys on geodetic applications.
Learning outcomes at the level of the programme to which the course contributes
- Understand the role of geodesy, geoinformatics and spatial data in modern world, demonstrate competences in measuring systems, methods and technologies of measurement and spatial data collection.
- Handle geodetic instruments and appropriate measuring equipment properly, and perform geodetic measurements.
- Establish geodetic networks needed in surveying and stakeout in order to provide the required quality of the works performed in certain space.
- Exercise appropriate judgements on the basis of performed calculation processing and interpretation of data obtained by means of surveying and its results.
- Prepare official public documents, reports, graphic and cartographic presentations using the surveying results related to objects in space.
- Keep pace with and adopt new technological achievements in the field of surveying, geoinformation systems and services based on the position, and the changes in regulations, norms and standards.
Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course
- Overmaster the concepts of satellite positioning and their implementation in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS),
- Explaine satellite orbit and Keplerian as well as Newtonian laws,
- Describe satellite positioning systems, structure, types and propagation of GNSS signals as well as error sources,
- Distinct code and phase measurements and know different mathematical models used for apsolute and relative positioning,
- Overwhelm usage and plan, prepare and execute static and kinematic measurement with GNSS receivers,
- Compute and analyse GNSS measurements (base vectors), adjust the network and deliver technical report for the project in accordance to existing rules.
Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)
Course content (in two-hour lectures):
- Course organization - presentation of teachers, course content, literature, course timetable, usage of e-learning, obligations and right of students, the ways of reviewing the knowledge, rules of behaviour and course statitstics in previous years.
- Introduction to satellite positioning - concept, historical overview, satellite positioning systems in the past, present Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) (skort overview), fundamental equation of satellite positioning, advantages and limitations of satellite positioning systems.
- Reference systems - fundamental equaiton of distance determination, coordinate systems (temeljna jednadžba određivanja udaljenosti, koordinatni sustavi (celestial and terrestrial), reference vectors motion, transformations between the systems, time scales, calender, GPS datum.
- Satellite orbits - orbit determination accuracy influence on positioning accuracy, undisturbed satellite orbits, Kepler laws, Newton laws of motion, disturbed satellite orbits and disturbing accelerations, satellite tracking systems and orbit determination, parameters (ephemeries) for orbit path and satellite position computation.
- Atmosphere and satellite signal propagation - atmosphere structure, electromagnetic signals and their propagation through the atmosphere, phase and group velocity, ionospheric refraction, total electron content (TEC) and elimitation of TEC effect, tropospheric refraction, multipath, shift and variation of antenna phase center.
- Global positioning system (GPS) - definition, history of GPS, segments, space segment, satellite categories and characteristics, satellite signal, control segment, restrictions of accuracy and access, user segment, receivers, user services.
- Other GNSS systems - Russian GLONASS system (configuration, satellites, signals, segments, services, status), European Galileo system (foreseen configuration, services, status), Chinese Beidou 2 system (configuration, services, status), Indian IRNSS system (configuration, services, status) and Japanese QZSS system (configuration, services, status).
- GPS signals and observables - oscilators, signal components, PRN codes and their characteristics, signal processing, GPS receiver antennas, signal processing techniques, observables: code ranges, phase ranges, observable acquistion.
- Biases and noise, data combinations, mathematical models - observation biases and noises, its sources and characteristics, Standard Positioning Sevice, biases and noises character. Data combinations: linear phase combinations, phase and code pseudoranges combinations. Mathematical models: point positioning, diferential positioning, relative positioning .
- Relative positioning and GPS measurement - phase differences: single-, double- and triple-differences, phase differences correlation. Static and kinematic relative positioning, initialization of kinematic measurement. Measurement techniques, parameters, single point positioning, differential GPS, relative positioning: static, fast static, kinematic, pseudokinematic, real-time kinematic.
- Planning and execution of GNSS measurement - network design, observation window definition, sesion definition, field reconnaissance, organizational design. Surveying procedure: equipment calibration, observation, controls. Regulations prescribing usage of GNSS for surveying measurement.
- GNSS data processing I - data transfer, cycle slip detection and repair, software packages for GNSS measurements, baseline adjustement, static measurement computation, kinematic measurement computation, measurement computation quaility control, vector processing optimization.
- GNSS data processing II - software packages for GNSS network adjstement, correlation and choosing vectors, GNSS network adjustement, quality control, technical report, content of technical report, regulations.
- Permanent GNSS networks, augmented GNSS, services - permanent GNSS network concepts, their development and characteristics, services provided, Croatian permanent GNSS network CROPOS, overview of augmented GNSS systems, their purpose and characteristics, GNSS services, GNSS publications.
Exercise (according to tasks inside of practical project):
1. task- preparation, execution and computation of static measurement (12 hours) - becoming familiar with the equipment, fieldwork planning, preparation of equipment, surveying with GNSS, becoming familiar with the software package, data dowload, creating project, baseline computation, interpretation of results and drafting first part of tehnical report.
2. task - preparation, execution and computation of kinematic measurement (8 hours) - fieldwork plannin, preparation of equipment, surveying with GNSS, data downlaoda, creating project, baseline computation, interpretation of results and drafting second part of tehnical report.
3. task - preparation and adjustement of measured GNSS network (8 hours) - project preparation, network configuration (elimination og correlated measurements), adjustement with elimination of gross errors, interpretation of results and drafting third part of tehnical report.
Screening student work
- Class attendance - 1.5 ECTS
- Tests - 1.0
- Oral exam - 1.5 ECTS
- Written exam - 1.0
|1. ||Bačić, Ž. i Bašić, T: Satelitska geodezija (interna skripta), Geodetski fakultet, Zagreb, 1999.
|2. ||Bačić, Ž.: Satelitsko pozicioniranje, Geodetski fakultet, Zagreb, 2008 (skripta u pripremi)
|3. ||Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., Lichtenegger, H., Colins J.: GPS Theory and Practice, 2001.
|4. ||Bilajbegović, A., Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., Lichtenegger, H.: GPS u teoriji i praksi, 2000.
|5. ||Burša, M.: Satelitska geodezija I i II
|6. ||www.iers.org/links/geo/geodesy/tech-gps_cont.html, GPS links
|7. ||www.dgu.hr - Državna geodetska uprava - dokumenti i propisi
|8. ||www.geoinformatics.com - stručni članci iz područja sateliskog pozicioniranja