|Abbreviation: B36A02||Load: 30(L)
|Lecturers in charge: ||prof. dr. sc. Tomislav Bašić
Adopting theoretical and practical knowledge in the areas of the State Survey and its importance for basic geodetic works at the state level (Croatia) and / or more states (region, continent).
Learning outcomes at the level of the programme to which the course contributes
- Understand the role of geodesy, geoinformatics and spatial data in modern world, demonstrate competences in measuring systems, methods and technologies of measurement and spatial data collection.
- Demonstrate competences in theoretical principles, procedures of computing and visualizing the surveying data.
- Understand mathematical methods and physical laws applied in geodesy and geoinformatics.
- Apply knowledge of mathematics and physics for the purpose of recognizing, formulating and solving of problems in the field of geodesy and geoinformatics.
- Establish geodetic networks needed in surveying and stakeout in order to provide the required quality of the works performed in certain space.
- Use information technology in solving geodetic and geoinformation tasks.
- Exercise appropriate judgments on the basis of performed calculation processing and interpretation of data obtained by means of surveying and its results.
- Prepare official public documents,reports, graphic and cartographic presentations using the surveying results related to objects in space.
- Communicate the results obtained by means of geodesy and geoinformation to clients and experts of geodetic and other related professions
- Keep pace with and adopt new technological achievements in the field of surveying, geoinformation systems and services based on the position, and the changes in regulations, norms and standards.
- Take responsibility for continuing academic development in the field of geodesy and geoinformatics, or related disciplines, and for the development of interest in lifelong learning and further professional education.
Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course
- To master the method of calculation of the parameters of level-ellipsoid as a basic mathematical-physical body in geodesy and basic mathematical relations of ellipsoidal geodesy and their application in everyday geodetic surveys,
- To master the process of conversion of geodetic or ellipsoidal coordinates in the plane mapping and vice versa, and adopt necessary knowledge about inherited (positional HDKS, height Trieste 1875) and the new official (positional HTRS96, height HVRS71) geodetic reference systems and datums in Croatia, as well as master the process of their mutual transformation,
- Adopt the necessary knowledge of the methods of calculating the main surveying tasks on a rotational ellipsoid and the reduction of measured values (azimuths, directions and lengths) from the physical surface of the Earth to the surface of the ellipsoid,
- Become familiar with the height systems in geodesy and mutual transformations between them as well as with leveling in the real Earth's gravity field and its application in basic geodetic works,
- Acquire knowledge and mathematical procedures of coordinate transformations in the State survey, including "GNSS leveling" and T7D grid transformation for the territory of Croatia.
Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)
Lectures (two-hour lectures):
- The organization of the course - Introduction to the course content, the carrier and the teachers who teach, literature, way of verifying the fulfillment of obligations and knowledge, the conditions for signature resp. evaluation, rules of conduct of the class and statistics of successful filling out of the course and examinationsof previous generations.
- Introduction to State Survey - Definition and classification of geodesy, Definition of State survey (Higher geodesy), Basic surfaces in geodesy, The ways of solving geodetic tasks
- Introduction to State Survey-continued: Glossary - basic terms underlying lectures, inherited geodetic datums, the new official geodetic datumsin Croatia.
- Basic formulas and relations on the Earth's ellipsoid surface: Basic parameters of the ellipsoid, coordinate systems of an ellipsoid, a binding relationship between coordinate systems, the main radii of curvature, determine the length of the meridian arc and parallel.
- Curves of the Earth's rotational ellipsoid: The duality of the normal section, divergence of the mutual normal sections, the length of arc of normal section, the formula for mutual angles between the normal sections, geodesic line - its nature and properties, a simplified derivation of the basic equations of geodesic line, shape and gait of the geodesic line on a rotational ellipsoid, the angle between the geodetic line and direct normal section, azimuthal correction or correction due to the height of sight point.
- Main surveying tasks on a rotational ellipsoid: The reduction of astronomical azimuth and spatial length to the ellipsoid, basic considerations in connection with the main surveying tasks on the ellipsoid surface, and
Conformal mapping of ellipsoid into the plane for the needs of the state survey: Generally about the mapping, conformal mapping of the ellipsoid into the plane, Gauss-Krueger mapping (Transverse Mercator projection).
- Positionalnetworks: Generally on the positional networks, construction of positional network, designing positional network, stabilization and signalization points of order I, measured values in triangulation network, computing (adjustment) triangulation networks, measurement of directions, processing (adjustment) of complete gyrus and processing (adjustment) of incomplete gyrus, centering of directions and azimuths.
- Electronic distance measuring: Wave equation and its application in measuring distance, the expansion rate and spectrum of electromagnetic waves, temperature, pressure and humidity, and the refractive index of the atmosphere, instruments and instrumental corrections, (right) meteorological reduction, geometric reduction, height and positional centering.
- Indirect network adjustment: Improvement equations for lengths (on the ellipsoid and in the plane), improvement equations for directions (on the ellipsoid and in the plane), normal equations, accuracy estimates, pedal curves and ellipses of errors, example: 10km GPS network of the Republic of Croatia.
- Height systems: Methods of height transfer, the theoretical basis of geometric leveling, height systems, height transformation (correction because of the place), combined leveling (correction because of leveling route).
- State Survey and transformation: 7-parametric (3D-similar) transformation, 5-parameter transformation by Molodensky, method of "simple block shift", method of GRID transformation (official T7D transformation of the Republic of Croatia), transformation between ITRFxx systems.
Exercises (to each precedes auditoria exercises):
- 1. Calculating the parameters of the ellipsoid and coordinate systems and basic formula of the ellipsoidal geodesy: Introduction to the concepts of "rotational ellipsoid" and "level-ellipsoid" and calculating of their parameters according to a known mathematical expressions; definition of ellipsoidal and Cartesian coordinate system and application binding relations between them; transition from ellipsoidal in planar coordinates. Submit calculated task via e-learning systems (LMS).
- 2. The importance of physical parameters in the reduction of measured values from the physical Earth's surface to the surface of the ellipsoid: Introduction to the linear functionals of disturbing potential of gravity, geoid computation methods and the application of vertical deflection in the reduction of measured values from the physical surface of the Earth to the surface of the ellipsoid. Submit calculated task via e-learning systems (LMS).
- 3. Height Systems: Introduction to the concept "Geopotentialnumbers" and their use in defining the individual height system, taking into account the corresponding value of gravity. Submit calculated task via e-learning systems (LMS).
- 4. Adjustment of 2D/3D network with measured directions and lengths: Application of Gauss-Markov model of indirect adjustment in the treatment of a triangulation-trilateration geodetic network. Submit calculated task via e-learning systems (LMS).
Screening student work
- Class attendance - 1.0 ECTS
- Tests - 2.0 ECTS
- Oral exam - 1.0 ECTS
- Written exam - 1.0 ECTS
|1. ||Bašić, T.: Državna izmjera, Geodetski fakultet, predavanja u pdf formatu na moodle-u, Zagreb 2012 (skripta 2004/05.).
|2. ||Torge, W.: Geodesy, 3rd Edition, Walter de Gruyter, 2001. (engl.); Geodäsie, deGruyter Lehrbuch 2003. (njem.).
|3. ||Jekeli, Ch.: Geodetic Reference Systems in Geodesy, Ohio State University, 2006.
|4. ||Vaniček, P., Krakiwski, E. : Geodesy - The Concept, North-Holland, 1986.
|5. ||Čubranić, N.: Viša geodezija I i II, Tehnička knjiga, Zagreb 1974.
|6. ||Kontaktstudium : Geodätische Netze in Landes- und Ingenieurvermessung II, 1985.
|7. ||Državna geodetska uprava RH: dokumenti dostupni na www.dgu.hr .
Znanstveni projekt Geomatica Croatica i Geopotencijal i geodinamika Jadrana (Geo++ Adria): radovi na http://bib.irb.hr/ .