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Geodetic Instruments
Abbreviation: B11A05Load: 30(L) + 30(P) + 0(FE) + 0(LE) + 0(S) + 0(PEE) + 0(E) + 0(DE)
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Đuro Barković
izv. prof. dr. sc. Mladen Zrinjski
Course description:

Acquiring knowledge about the physical basis of geodetic instruments and practical knowledge about the instrument for measuring angles, height differences, distances and position of the points and knowledge of the methods testing and control of geodetic instruments.

Learning outcomes at the level of the programme to which the course contributes
  • Understand the role of geodesy, geoinformatics and spatial data in modern world, demonstrate competences in measuring systems, methods and technologies of measurement and spatial data collection.
  • Apply knowledge of mathematics and physics for the purpose of recognizing, formulating and solving of problems in the field of geodesy and geoinformatics.
  • Handle geodetic instruments and appropriate measuring equipment properly, and perform geodetic measurements.
  • Solve practical tasks in surveying, spatial data collection, real estate evaluation and management.
  • Keep pace with and adopt new technological achievements in the field of surveying, geoinformation systems and services based on the position, and the changes in regulations, norms and standards.

Learning outcomes expected at the level of the course
  • Define the terms: measurement, units of measurement, basic geodetic measurement variables.
  • Explain concepts: accuracy, correctness, precision, error and deviation.
  • Knowing the nature and properties of light in the context of the law of reflection (rejection) and refraction (fracture) light and explain the refractive index of light.
  • Differentiate and explain the properties of mirrors, prisms, plane parallel plate, optical wedge, lens, telephoto lens and other optical elements and systems.
  • Introduction to the structure of the eye as part of the optical system.
  • Explain theodolite, level and devices for measuring length - division, purpose, structure, components,operating conditions, testing and rectification of the mistake that affect the measurement.
  • Measure the angles, height difference and length by different methods and measurement procedures.
  • Explain instruments for determining the position of points (coordinates) - division, purpose, structure, parts and errors that affect the determination of coordinates.
  • Apply automate measurements and communication between the geodetic instruments and computers.

Course content broken down in detail by weekly class schedule (syllabus)
  1. Basics of geodetic measurements. Measurements in geodesy. Getting to know of instruments and accessories. Staking out of perpendicular using pent-prisms. (2L + 2E)
  2. Measuring instruments and accessories. Light-genesis and character. Basic optical, mechanical and electronic circuits in instruments. Centering and levelling theodolite. Rectification tubular level. (2L + 2E)
  3. Geometrical optics. Plane parallel plate. Optical wedge. Prisms. Prisms for reflection. Optical micrometer. Straight and angled mirror. Focusing the crosshair. Focusing. Parallax of the crosshair. Boresight with theodolite. Reading with theodolite: index, scale and optical micrometer. (2L + 2E)
  4. Lens. Fundamentals of optical mappings. Systems of lens. Errors mappings. Classification of optical instruments. Increase. Eye. Accommodation. Adaptation. Visual acuity. The correction of the eye. Fieldwork with theodolite. Observation Hz directions and measuring height of instrument. (2L + 2E)
  5. Magnifier. Microscope. Binoculars. Classification and characteristics of binoculars. The increase. The luminosity. The screens. Field of view. Resolving power. Crosshair. Conditions of theodolite. Testing double collimation error. Testing of the optical plummet. (2L + 2E)
  6. Tubular and circular level. Axis and sensitivity level. Classification theodolites. Optical theodolite. The main parts. Axis. The constructive conditions. Testing of compensator index vertical circle theodolite. Measurement Hz and V angles. Trigonometric measurement of the height difference. (2L + 2E)
  7. Errors collimation, tilting and vertical axis of theodolite. Errors eccentricity Hz circle. Error index of the vertical circle. Fieldwork with theodolites. Instrument height. Measurement Hz and V angle on the 3 point with gyrus method. Trigonometric measurement of the height difference. 1st preliminary exam. (2L + 2E)
  8. Electronic theodolites. Characteristics. Basic construction. Ways of reading and registration. Dual axis compensator. Other special theodolites, and gyro theodolite. Laser binoculars. Optical plummet. Introduction to levels. Level with compensator. Conditions of levels with compensator. Reading lath: centimeter and half-centimeter. (2L + 2E)
  9. Instruments for measuring height differences. Methods: trigonometric, geometric and barometric. Classification of levels. Basic parts and functions. Automatic leveling boresight line. Errors levels. Accessories levels. Fieldwork with levels. Determination of the height difference with level between 3 points. Testing of the zero position compensator of level. (2L + 2E)
  10. Electronic level. The principle of operation. The coded lath. Testing of level. Rotating laser level. The working principle of barometer. Optical distance meters. Reichenbach distance meter. Auto reduction distance meters with diagrams. Distance meters with a constant base on aim. Calculating the distance and height difference. 2nd preliminary exam. (2L + 2E)
  11. Instruments for measuring distances. The mechanical, optical and electronic measurement. Measuring tape. Odometer. Distometer. Optical measurement of distances. Basis lath. Measuring the length with interference of light. Fieldwork with optical distance meters. Measuring the length and height differences on the three points. 3rd practical preliminary exam - centering and leveling theodolite. (2L + 2E)
  12. Electronic measuring distances. The principle of operation. Radiation sources. Basic correction and reduction. Testing. Hand-held laser distance meter. The total station. Transferring measurement data to a computer. Repeat 1st preliminary exam. (2L + 2E)
  13. Total station. Optical. Electronic. Electronic record. Transferring measurement data to computer. Repeat 2nd preliminary exam. (2L + 2E)
  14. Instruments for satellite positioning. GNSS receiver. Sources of errors. Uninterrupted flow of geodetic data. Testing of geodetic instruments. Repetition - field work with levels, theodolites, measurement Hz and V angles. Repeat 3rd practical preliminary exam. (4L + 4E)

Screening student work
  • Class attendance - 0.5 ECTS
  • Practical training - 0.5 ECTS
  • Tests - 1.0
  • Oral exam - 2.0
  • Written exam - 1.0
Lecture languages: - - -
Compulsory literature:
1. Lasić, Z: Predavanja - skripta. Geodetski fakultet, Zagreb,2007.
2. Lasić, Z. Geodetski instrumenti - vježbe. Skripta, Geodetski fakultet Zagreb, 2007.
7. Obavezna literatura iz predavanja i iz vježbi je navedena u opisu literature te se može nabaviti u fotokopiraonici u suterenu fakulteta.
Recommended literature:
3. Benčić, D.: Geodetski instrumenti. Školska knjiga, Zagreb 1990.
4. Fialovszky, L.: Surveying Instruments and their Operational Principles. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest 1991.
5. Kahmen, H.: Vermessungskunde. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1997.
6. Deumlich, F: Staiger, R.: Intrumentenkunde der Vermessugstehnik. Herbert Wichmann, 2002.
L - Lectures
P - Practicum
FE - Field exercises
LE - Laboratory exercises
S - Seminar
PEE - Physical education excercises.
E - Exercises
DE - Design exercises
* - Not graded
Copyright (c) 2006. Ministarstva znanosti, obrazovanja i športa. Sva prava zadržana.
Programska podrška (c) 2006. Fakultet elektrotehnike i računarstva.
Oblikovanje(c) 2006. Listopad Web Studio.
Posljednja izmjena 2018-10-09